The appulse and after-effects of AIDS/HIV in India
“Whenever AIDS has won, stigma, shame, distrust, bigotry and aloofness was on its side. Every time AIDS has been defeated, it has been because of trust, openness, chat amid individuals and communities, ancestors support, animal solidarity, and the animal backbone to acquisition new paths and solutions.” – Michel Sidibé, Executive Director, UNAIDS
What are AIDS and HIV?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Affection (AIDS) is acquired by a virus alleged HIV or Animal Immunodeficiency Virus. The ache changes the allowed system, authoritative humans actual accessible to infections and diseases. This vulnerability gets worse as the affection progresses, sometimes with baleful results.
HIV is a virus: Specifically, HIV is the virus, which attacks the T-cells (CD-4 cells) in the allowed system.
AIDS is a medical condition: AIDS is the syndrome, which appears at an avant-garde date of the HIV infection.
The HIV infection can could cause AIDS to advance but it is accessible to be adulterated with HIV afterwards developing AIDS. However, afterwards treatment, the HIV infection can advance and, eventually, advance into AIDS in a lot of cases. Once an AIDS analysis is made, it will consistently be a allotment of a patient’s medical history.
What causes HIV and AIDS?
A retrovirus that infects the basic organs and beef of the animal allowed system, HIV develops in the absence of antiretroviral analysis (ART) – a biologic analysis that slows, and can prevent, the advance of new HIV viruses.
The amount of virus progression in assorted individuals differs widely, depending on abounding factors including:
- The body’s adeptness to avert itself adjoin HIV
- Access to healthcare
- Other infections the accommodating may have
- The person’s abiogenetic inheritance
- Resistance to assertive strains of HIV
- Other factors
How is HIV transmitted?
Sexual transmission: Contact with adulterated animal fluids (rectal, genital, or articulate close membranes) while accepting caught sex with anyone adulterated with HIV
Perinatal transmission: A mother can canyon the infection on to her adolescent during childbirth, abundance and breastfeeding
Blood transfusion: Manual of HIV through claret admixture is acutely low in developed countries, acknowledgment to accurate screening and precautions. This is generally not the case in the developing world
Early affection of HIV infection
Many humans with HIV accept no affection for several months, or even years, afterwards getting infected. Others may advance affection agnate to flu, usually two to six weeks afterwards getting adulterated by the virus. The affection of aboriginal HIV infection may cover fever, chills, collective pains, beef aches, abscessed throat, sweats (particularly at night), continued glands, red rash, tiredness, accepted weakness and weight loss.
Myths and facts about HIV and AIDS
There are abounding misconceptions about HIV and AIDS which are not based on accurate and medical facts. The virus CANNOT be transmitted by:
- shaking hands
- casual kissing
- touching ceaseless skin
- using the aforementioned toilet
- sharing towels
- sharing cutlery
- mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or added forms of “casual contact”
Is there analysis for AIDS and HIV?
Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV, but assertive treatments accept acquired which are abundant added able and bigger acceptable – convalescent the patients’ accepted bloom and superior of activity appreciably – by just demography one bolus a day.
Certain treatments can apathetic the advance of the condition, acceptance a lot of adulterated humans the befalling to reside continued and almost advantageous lives. Starting HIV antiretroviral analysis aboriginal is crucial. According to the Apple Bloom Organization’s guidelines, issued in June 2013, aboriginal analysis improves the superior of life, extends activity assumption and reduces the accident of transmission.
How can HIV be prevented?
To anticipate getting adulterated with HIV, medical professionals admonish demography the afterward precautions:
Avoid the dangers of caught sex: Accepting sex afterwards a condom can put a getting at accident of getting adulterated with HIV and added sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Drug corruption and aggravate sharing: Intravenous biologic use is an important agency in HIV transmission, abnormally in developed countries. Sharing all-overs can betrayal users to HIV and added viruses, such as hepatitis C.
Body aqueous exposure: Acknowledgment to HIV can be prevented by employing precautions to abate the accident of acknowledgment to attenuated blood. Healthcare workers should use barriers (gloves, masks, careful eyewear, bouncer and gowns).
Pregnancy: Some treatments can abuse the approaching child. To assure the baby’s health, supply through caesarean area may be necessary. HIV-infected mothers should not breastfeed.
The accent of education: This is an important agency in abbreviation chancy behaviour that after-effects in HIV/AIDS.
Social stigma associated with AIDS
Fear surrounding the growing HIV catching in the 1980s persists even today. At the time, back actual little was accepted about HIV and how it is transmitted, the ache afraid humans because of their abhorrence of getting infected.
This fear, to this day, agency that lots of humans still accept that HIV and AIDS:
- Still ends in death
- The syndromes’ affiliation with behaviours that ample numbers of humans still blame of – such as homosexuality, biologic use, sex plan or infidelity
- That the affection is transmitted through sex, which is a anathema accountable in some cultures
- The infection is because of claimed absurdity or moral flaws that deserve to be punished
- False advice about how the virus is transmitted, giving acceleration to aberrant behaviour and misconceptions about claimed risk
What is the akin of acquaintance about AIDS in India?
According to a absolute analysis undertaken by UNDP column 2005, “HIV and AIDS are a austere claiming for the developing as able-bodied as the developed world. India, with an estimated 5.206 actor humans active with HIV in 2005, accounts for about 69 percent of the HIV infections in the South and South-East Asian region. This is admitting it getting a low prevalence country with an all-embracing developed HIV prevalence amount of 0.91 percent.”
“India has six top prevalence states: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Manipur and Nagaland. Of these Andhra Pradesh has recorded the accomplished prevalence of two percent a part of the antenatal dispensary attendees and 22.8 percent a part of STD dispensary attendees in 2005. Given the all-embracing low prevalence of HIV, focus so far has been on belief the AIDS/HIV appulse at the akin of the alone and households“, the analysis emphasises.
In conclusion, we adduce studies agitated out by the Apple Bank Accumulation in 2012, “The Government of India estimates that about 2.40 actor Indians are active with HIV (1.93-3.04 million) with an developed prevalence of 0.31% (2009). Children (<15 years) annual for 3.5% of all infections, while 83% are the in age accumulation 15-49 years. Of all HIV infections, 39% (930,000) are a part of women. India’s awful amalgamate catching is abundantly concentrated in alone a few states – in the automated south and west, and in the north-east. The four top prevalence states of South India (Andhra Pradesh – 500,000, Maharashtra – 420,000, Karnataka – 250,000, Tamil Nadu – 150,000) annual for 55% of all HIV infections in the country. West Bengal, Gujarat, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are estimated to accept added than 100,000 PLHA anniversary and calm annual for addition 22% of HIV infections in India.“